# Clean Code¶

There are few things in the world of programming that I find more satisfying than clean code. Not only is it elegant, but it’s often clever as hell.

Code is an art form, and just like art, it is never finished, only abandoned. Writing clear and concise code will only come from one thing: experience. That being said, there are some things you can do to speed up this process, namely learning the features of your language of choice.

Without further adieu, here are some not-so-obvious things you can do to write more elegant code.

## Conditional Statements¶

One of the first things that can be cleaned up in beginner code is conditional statements. In most C-like languages, any non-zero value is considered true.

As an example, let’s look at the following code:

if ((digitalRead(PIN) == HIGH) && (foo == 0)) {
foo = 1;
} else {
foo = 0;
}

Fairly ugly, but what if I told you it’s possible to condense this into a single line of code?

Let’s start by cutting out some of the clunky code:

foo = 1;
} else {
foo = 0;
}

Note

In the Arduino standard, HIGH is defined as 1, and LOW is defined as 0.

Right away, you can see how much more concise the code has become.

The first thing to note here is the return value of digitalRead(). Since we know that digitalRead() returns an int value of either 0 or 1, we can condense our statement. In this situation, we’re only interested in a HIGH reading (which coincides with 1), so we can drop the == HIGH as the condition automatically evaluates to 1 (true).

Along with a HIGH reading from PIN, we also want our dummy variable, foo, to be 0. Here is where our friend, the logical NOT (!) operator, comes into play. If any condition’s result is non-zero (true), it returns 0 (false), and if any condition’s result is 0 (false), it returns 1 (true). Therefore, foo == 0 can be rewritten as !foo because it will only be true when foo has the value of 0.

As nice as the current if-else case is, it’s not a single line like I promised.

### The Ternary Operator¶

It turns out that the code above is a very common operation, so much so that it warranted an operator of its own.

The ternary (? :) operator often catches new programmers off guard, but once learned, allows for far more concise code.

As promised, here is the single line of code:

foo = (digitalRead(PIN) && !foo) ? 1 : 0;

Satisfying right? And this is just one of the little tricks you can take advantage of to write cleaner code.

Tip

To easily remember how the ternary operator is structured, I like to think of it as a question:

is_my_condition_true ? yes : no

If the condition evaluates to true, the first expression is evaluated and returned. If the condition isn’t true, the second expression is evaluated and returned.

Comments, you hate writing them, but love reading them, that’s of course if they’re good comments. I find that commenting is often a struggle for beginner programmers because they’re confused as to what to comment. The code produced is either absent of comments or marked to the brim with overly verbose comments. So then, what do we comment?

### Why, Not How¶

If you think about it, comments primarily exist to clarify things that may not be immediately obvious. That said, comments should explain why and not how you implemented something. What’s important to realize here is that the code already shows the reader how you implemented a feature, but that doesn’t necessarily coincide with an understanding as to why you implemented a feature. As a good rule of thumb, write comments to clarify things you wouldn’t understand reading your code the first time around.

int foo = 13;  // initialize integer variable foo with a value of 13
// specify the pins of the seven segment display using an unsigned byte array
uint8_t SEVEN_SEGMENT_PINS[8] = {3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10};

void setup()
{
// initialize the serial interface with a baud rate of 9600
Serial.begin(9600);
// set the UPM01 and UPM00 flags in the UCSR0C register
UCSR0C |= _BV(UPM01) | _BV(UPM00);

// set the mode of SEVEN_SEGMENT_PINS 0 to 7 as outputs
for (int i = 0; i < 8; i++)
pinMode(SEVEN_SEGMENT_PINS[i], OUTPUT);

++foo;  // increment variable foo by 1
}

int foo = 13;
uint8_t SEVEN_SEGMENT_PINS[8] = {3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10};

void setup()
{
Serial.begin(9600);
// enable odd parity for serial communication
UCSR0C |= _BV(UPM01) | _BV(UPM00);

// initialize the seven segment display
for (int i = 0; i < 8; i++)
pinMode(SEVEN_SEGMENT_PINS[i], OUTPUT);

++foo;
}

### Remember Why You’re Commenting¶

When you write code, you’re more often than not writing something that’s going to be read by someone else or yourself months, if not years down the line. Remember, the goal is to write something efficient and easy to read. What use is the fastest code in the world if someone must invest hours of their time figuring out why you implemented a feature? As tempting as it may be to exclude comments, you’ll be thanking me when you come back to your code later down the line. Either that or you’ll be cursing out your program. You have been warned!

## Naming Conventions¶

It’s often joked that naming things is one of the hardest parts of programming, and quite frankly, it isn’t that far from the truth. Unfortunately, I can’t help you come up with clever and creative names. Fortunately, though, I can help you in creating a good naming convention. Not only does a good naming convention make for clean code, but it saves time and reduces confusion.

### Constants v. Variables¶

In my opinion, the difference between constants and variables should be very pronounced to remove any chance of confusion. In general, capitalize constants (i.e. F_CPU), and lowercase variables (i.e. var_delay). Not only does such a naming convention allow for easy differentiation between constants and variables throughout your program, but it coincides with constant declarations in most header files.

### Verbosity¶

Naming verbosity is something that I see gotten wrong time and time again. Don’t call your iterative variable in a for loop local_iteration_variable, or call a globally-scoped variable x. Generally speaking, when the scope of a variable decreases, so should its specificity. On the other extreme of the spectrum, be concise when naming variables or functions. Please don’t name a function fast_inverse_square_root(), Q_rsqrt() is more than enough.

Tldr

Don’t be too vague or too specific; shorten words while staying clear and concise.

## Whitespace¶

Whitespace: it’s all the space you don’t see. In case you’re unfamiliar with whitespace, it is “any character or series of characters that represent horizontal or vertical space in typography”.1 In most languages, whitespace serves no purpose besides making code easier to read, and because of this feature, things like the whitespace programming language actually exist.2 As cool as this esoteric programming language is, what can you do about whitespace to make your code easier to read?

### Indentation¶

Indents serve as a way to divide your code into logical blocks. I personally prefer 8-character wide indents. Some may view this as excessive, but the whole premise behind indents is to clearly define blocks of code, something difficult to do with 4 or 2 character wide indents. Others may argue that such wide indents make code difficult to read. The answer to that is if you need more than three levels of indentation, you’re probably not writing the best code and should rethink your current implementation.

### Long Lines¶

It’s a good rule of thumb to keep your code below 80 characters in width. It may seem like an arbitrary value, but it actually stems from old terminals that were 80 characters wide. Nevertheless, this isn’t a hard limit, just an indicator if you should restructure your code. The only exception to this rule would be breaking user-visible strings, as this breaks the ability to grep for them, something crucial in multi-file projects.

Did you know?

Lines of code is a terrible way to measure the quality of code! You may be mistaken in thinking that more lines of code equate to more work done, and with that, I’ll leave you with the following:

Quote

“One of my most productive days was throwing away 1,000 lines of code.” - Ken Thompson

On the other end of the extreme, less does not always mean better. Don’t be mistaken into thinking fewer lines of code always means a more efficient program. In fact, most programming languages allow for an entire program to be condensed into a single line, making this measurement misleading at best!

### Chunks¶

Break your code into chunks as most functions have distinct steps to them.

For example:

void setup()
{
// step 1: initialize the serial interface
Serial.begin(9600);

// step 2: obtain initial sensor readings
for (int i = 0; i < 4; i++) {
pinMode(INPUT_ARR[i], INPUT);
}

// step 3: set the initial state of pins
for (int i = 0; i < 3; i++) {
pinMode(OUTPUT_ARR[i], OUTPUT);
analogWrite(OUTPUT_ARR[i], INIT_VAL[i]);
}
}

Note

The comments above serve no purpose besides highlighting the distinct steps.

The code above isn’t all that useful, but it does illustrate the point I’m trying to get across. You can effortlessly see the steps of the setup() function: the initialization of the serial interface, obtaining initial sensor readings, and setting initial pin states. By breaking a function into chunks, you break down a complex solution into its simple components, making it far easier to read and understand.

## Braces¶

Brace styling is one of the more opinionated sections, and I’m not someone to force my opinion onto anyone but some styles are arguably better than others.

### Brace Placement¶

I personally like to in-line all of my braces, except for function definitions. The reason why I like to do this is simple: functions are “special”, and this makes them far more pronounced.

For example:

void setup()
{
Serial.begin(9600);

for (int i = 0; i < ARR_SIZ; i++) {
pinMode(PIN_ARR[i], OUTPUT);
digitalWrite(PIN_ARR[i], HIGH);
}
}

### Brace Omission¶

Although braces are often needed, they can be omitted for the bodies of if, if-else, for, while, and do-while statements if the body consists of a single statement. Just be warned, this might cause unintentional bugs if you’re not careful!

One of my favorite uses for this is checking if an input argument is damaging to hardware:

int motor_driver(uint8_t speed, uint8_t control_flags)
{
/*
* In this example I'm checking if the user set control bits that could
* cause an h-bridge motor circuit to short.  If any error condition is
* met, the function returns an error value and exits prematurely.
*/

// circuit protection
if (control_flags & (1 << 0 | 1 << 3)) return -1;
if (control_flags & (1 << 1 | 1 << 2)) return -1;

...

## Compound Assignment¶

Programmers are lazy, at least the good ones. I use lazy lightly because what I mean is that programmers often try to do something in the least repetitive way possible. Given a programmer’s mission of getting as much done with as little effort possible, you are obligated to make use of compound assignments or risk the sin of typing more than you have to.

Jokes aside, it’s important to use your tools effectively. Much like you wouldn’t dig a hole with a spoon, you don’t want to type out compound operations defined by your language’s standard.

### Compound Operators¶

Compound Operation Non-compound Equivalent
x *= y x = x * y
x /= y x = x / y
x += y x = x + y
x -= y x = x - y
x %= y x = x % y
x &= y x = x & y
x |= y x = x | y
x ^= y x = x ^ y
x <<= y x = x << y
x >>= y x = x >> y

### Prefix v. Postfix (Increment/Decrement)¶

You’re probably familiar with the increment/decrement (++/--) operators, but you may not be aware that their placement matters at times.

Let’s look at the following examples:

Prefix:

int x, y, z;
x = y = 13;

z = ++x;  // x and z are both 14
z = --y;  // y and z are both 12

Postfix:

int x, y, z;
x = y = 13;

z = x++;  // x is 14 while z is 13
z = y--;  // y is 12 while z is 13

What to note here, the prefix increment/decrement will increase or decrease a variable before being read, while the postfix increment/decrement will read a variable, then increase or decrease a variable. It’s a minute feature, but knowing this will save you from a very bad headache later down the road.

## Endnotes¶

There is no “right” or “wrong” way to write code. Everyone has their own style. These are merely my recommendations. For all I care, you can write all your code on a single line; I just don’t think you’ll be having a great time.

What I hope you do is explore. Read other people’s code. Take notes on what they did well and what they did poorly. I can assure you you’re going to learn something new, or at the very least, be amused by a great example of what not to do.